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      UNIT 19


      awash a. washed over by the waves 被浪潮冲打的

      cleanse v. make clean 使清洁

      cluster v. form a close group 使成群;群集;丛生

      cope v. manage successfully 妥善处理

      destination n. place to which sb. or sth. is going or is being sent 目的地

      detergent n. a chemical product used for cleaning clothing, dishes, etc. 清洁剂

      effluent n. liquid waste 流出物;液体废物

      endemic a. (of a disease) found regularly in a particular place (疾病等)地方性的

      filth disgusting dirt 污物

      flush v. flow suddenly and freely 奔流;涌

      foul v. make dirty or impure  弄脏;污染

      gravely ad. seriously 严肃地

      hazard n. danger 危险

      infect v. give a disease to, contaminate 感染

      inhabit v. live in 居住于

      landlocked a. almost or entirely surrounded by land 被陆地围住的

      lurk . exist unseen; wait in hiding 潜伏

      nourish v. keep alive and well with food to, train, educate, or develop 养育;培养;教养

      outbreak n. sudden occurrence 爆发

      overestimate v. have too high an opinion of the degree or number of 过高估计

      periodic a. happening repeatedly at regular times 间歇的;定期的

      pollute v. make dirty 污染

      popular a. favoured by many people 大众喜爱的

      remorseless a. feeling or showing no sorrow for doing wrong 不懊悔的

      seductive a. attractive, seemingly enticing 有吸引力的;富有魅力的

      sewage n. the waste material and water carried in sewers (阴沟里的)污物

      slime n. soft, nasty, thick, sticky mud 软泥;粘泥

      sluice v. send a stream of water over 奔流;奔泻

      stifle v. prevent from happening or continuing 抑制;镇压

      cholera  n.霍乱

      dysentery n. 痢疾

      lagoon n. 环礁湖;咸水湖

      paratyphoid n. 副伤寒

      pesticide n. 杀虫剂

      plankton n. 浮游生物

      polio n. 脊髓灰质炎;小儿麻痹症

      shellfish n. 水生贝类动物

      typhoid n.伤害

      viral hepatitis 病毒性肝炎



      bounty n. money given (by government ) for reward (政府给的)奖励金

      carrion n. dead and decaying flesh 腐尸

      decompose v. break up and separate into simple parts; decay 分解

      departure n. leaving a place 离别

      endanger v. put in danger; cause danger to 危害;危及

      expansion n. making or becoming larger 扩张,膨胀

      exterminate v. make an end of ; destroy completely 根除,灭绝

      fatal a. causing or ending in death or disaster 致命的

      habitat n. the natural home of a plant or animal 动植物产地

      hemisphere n. a half of the earth; half a sphere 半球

      injurious a. causing harm 致伤的,有害的

      millennium n. a period of 1000 years . pl. millennia 一千年

      persecution n. cruel treatment 残害,迫害

      predator n. wild animal living by killing and eating other amimals 捕食其它动物的野生动物

      preserve n. stretch of land or water where animals, birds and fish are kept safe from harm or danger. 禁猎地

      prospect n. reasonable hope; sth. which is expected 前程;盼望的事物

      refuge n. shelter or protection from danger 避难所

      remnant n. a part that remains 剩余部分

      roam wander with no clear aim 漫步,漫游

      scavenger n. a bird or an animal that feeds on wastes or decaying flesh 食腐动物

      splendid a. grand in appearance; glorious; very fine; excellent 优异的,壮丽的

      subtle a. delicate, hardly noticeable; difficult to perceive or describe 微妙的;难以捉摸的

      superstition n. false belief not based on scientific knowledge 迷信

      toll n. the cost in health, life, etc. from illness, an accident, etc. 重大的代价;伤亡人数

      transition n. changing from one condition to another 变迁,转变

      unprecedented a. never done or known before 无前例的

      unrelenting a. not becoming less in intensity 不松懈的

      wilderness n. an area of land with little life 荒野

      bobcat n. (北美东部最常见的一种)野猫

      bighorn sheep 大角羊

      boll weevil 棉铃象虫

      buffalo n. 水牛;野牛

      calcium n. 钙

      coyote n. (产于北美西部草原的)郊狼,小狼

      Department of the Interior 内务部

      elk n. 麋

      grizzly bear 灰熊

      passenger pigeon 旅鸽 (一种已经绝种的北美野鸽)

      pelican n. 鹈鹕

      potato beetle 马铃薯甲虫

      prairie dog 草原犬鼠(产于北美,鸣声似狗的一种土拨鼠)

      pronghorn antelope 叉角羚

      subspecies 亚种

      the Atlantic 大西洋

      the Pacific 太平洋

      timber wolf (北美北部产的)林狼

      whooping crane 鸣鹤

      UNIT 21


      adjust v. change slightly in order to make suitable for a particular condition 调整;停顿

      animate v. give lift to; enliven 使有生命;使活泼,激励

      animated a. active and lively 活跃的;生气勃勃的

      anxiety n. uneasiness or fear caused by uncertainty about sth. 忧虑;担心;热望

      approval n. (official) agreement 批准;同意

      armor n. strong protective metal covering on fighting vehicles 盔甲;防护物

      benevolent a. having the desire to do good 仁慈的;乐善好施的

      bounce v. jump or spring up and down like a boll 跳跃;弹起

      conduct v. direct; guide 引导;带领

      contract v. become smaller in size 缩小

      convey v. make (idea, feeling, etc.) known 传播;转达

      deflect v. turn from a straight course or fixed direction 转向;偏斜

      exhalation n. breathing out 呼气

      focus v. fix a point on, concentrate on 使聚集;集中

      fright n. feeling or experience of fear 惊吓;恐怖

      grilling n. tough question 严厉盘问

      hostility n. the state of being unfriendly, showing strong dislike 敌意;敌视

      inhale v. breathe in 吸气;吸入

      inspiration n. an urge to produce good and beautiful things 鼓励;鼓舞

      inventory n. a list or a survey 清单;概览

      lunge v. make a sudden forceful forward movement 冲刺;猛向前冲

      nervous a. excited and anxious, worried 紧张不安的;胆怯的

      polish v. make as perfect as possible 磨光;使精炼;使优美

      positive a. active and certain 积极的;肯定的;确定的

      presentation n. the act in which sth. is offered, shown or explained 呈现;展示;提出;描述

      quiver v. slightly tremble 颤抖;抖动

      resonance n. deep, full, clear and continuous sounding 回声;共鸣

      scan v. look at quickly 浏览;粗略地看

      screech v. make a very high, sharp sound 发出尖锐刺耳的叫声

      seduce v. cause or persuade sb. to do sth. by making it seem attractive 诱惑;勾引

      splay v. spread out, become large at one end 展开;向外张开

      survey n. a general view 概观;调查

      tack n. course of action 行动步骤;方针

      vibes n. slight continuous shaky movement 摇摆;激动

      wrestle v. fight by holding and throwing body; (with) try one‘s best to do 搏斗;全力以赴;深思

      momentum n. 动量;势力;推进力



      advocate n. a person who speaks for or supports an idea, way of life, etc. 拥护者

      boundary n. the limiting or spaniding line of surfaces or spaces 分界线,边界

      compassionate a. sympathetic 有同情心的

      devastate v. destroy completely 摧毁;破坏

      disruption n. bringing or throwing into disorder 扰乱

      dramatically ad. excitingly 惊人地;显著地

      epidemic a. very common in one place for a time 流行性的;传染的 n. a large number of cases of the same infectious disease during a single period of time 流行病,时疫

      evaluate v. calculate the value or degree of 估…价,评价

      explore v. examine thoroughly in order to test or learn 探究;考查

      heed v. give attention to 注意,留意

      impact n. influence 影响

      implement n. a tool or instrument 工具,器具v. carry out or put into practice 贯彻;履行

      infectious a. (of a disease ) which can be spread by infection 传染的;传染性的

      intervene v. interrupt sth., esp. to prevent a bad result 干涉;干预

      jeopardize v. endanger 使受危险;危害

      mitigate v. lessen the seriousness of ( wrong or harmful action ) 减轻

      mortality n. the number of deaths from a certain cause 死亡数

      multilateral a. concerning or including more that 2 groups of people esp. who have different interests and needs but come together in an agreement 多边的;涉及多方的

      pledge v. make a solemn promise or agreement 发誓;保证

      prevalence n. existing commonly, generally, or widely 流行,盛行;普遍

      promote v. support; help in the growth of 促进;

      soar v. fly; go fast or high 高飞;猛增,剧增

      sustain v. bear (difficulty) 忍受;经受住

      transmit v. send or pass from one person, place, or thing to another 传送;传达

      virus n. a living thing even smaller than bacteria which causes infections disease in the body, in plants, etc. 病毒

      vulnerable a. weak; not well protected; easily attacked 脆弱的;易受伤害的

      AIDS n. 获得性免疫缺损综合症,艾滋病

      HIV 人类免疫缺乏病毒

      microbicide n. 杀菌剂


      vaccine n. 疫苗 痘苗

      UNIT 23


      absolute a. complete, perfect 完全的,纯粹的

      accelerate v. (cause to) move faster, increase speed 加速,增加速度

      ambitious a. having a strong desire for success, power, riches, etc. 有雄心的

      balmy a. (of air) soft and warm, mild 温和的,柔和的

      benign a. not dangerous to life 有益于健康的

      bionic a. having powers that are greater than those of ordinary human beings 有超人力量的

      brittle a. easily damaged, or destroyed 易破碎的,易损坏的

      candidate n. a person or thing who wants, or whom others want, to be chosen for position 侯选人,被选择的东西

      ceramic a. of a connected with the art or practice of making bricks, pots, etc. by shaping bits of clay and baking until hard 制陶的,陶器的

      crumbly a. easy to break into very small pieces 易碎的

      dexterous a. skillful, having or showing the quality of ability, cleverness, and skill, esp. in the use of the hands (身,手)灵巧的

      explode v. blow up or burst 爆炸

      extraction n. the act of pulling or taking out often with difficulty 抽出,榨取

      far-fetched a. improbable or forced 未必确定的,牵强的

      feasible a. able to be carried out or done possible 行得通的

      flexible a. that can change or be changed to be suitable for new needs, changed conditions etc. 可变通的,灵活的

      focus n. the central point, place of greatest activity 中心点,焦点

      foul v. become dirty, impure, or blocked with waste matter 弄脏,使壅塞

      genius n. a person with great and special ability 天才

      glimmer n. a small sign, a faint unsteady light 模糊的感觉,微光

      immune a. unable to be harmed because of special powers in oneself, free from 有免疫力的,免除的

      incredible a. too strange to be believed, unbelievable 难以置信的

      ingenuity n. skill and cleverness in making or arranging things 独出心裁;独创性

      manipulate vt. handle or control (esp. a machine) skillfully 熟练地操作

      membrane n. soft thin skin in the body, covering or connecting parts of it (生物体)薄膜

      millennium n. a period of 1,000 years 一千周年

      option n. the freedom to choose 选择自由

      orbit n. the path of one heavenly body round another 行星轨道

      v. move in an orbit 沿轨道运行

      phenomenon n. a fact or event in nature as it appears or experiences by the senses, esp. one that is unusual and/or of scientific interest 现象;有科学意义的;可感知的自然现象

      potential a. existing in possibility 潜在的

      predict v. see or describe (a future happening) in advance as a result of knowledge, experience, reason, etc 预言;预告

      semipermeable a. that can not be completely spread or passed through or into every part of 半渗透的

      soar v. fly, go fast or high (as) on wings 高飞,翱翔

      trumpet v. declare or shout loudly 鼓吹

      verge n. the edge or border 边沿,界限

      cochlea n.(医)耳蜗

      camcorder n. 摄像放像机

      formula n. (赛车)级(方程式)

      helium n. 氦

      hydrogen n. 氢

      impulse n. 脉冲

      nitrogen n. 氮

      space shuttle 航天飞机

      superconductor n. 超导体

      zeppelin 齐柏林飞船,飞艇



      accident-prone a. likely to have accidents 特别易出事故的

      build-up n. increase or development; forming steadily 增大;逐步建立

      considerable a. fairly large or great in amount, size or degree 很大的,可观的

      controversial a. likely to cause or causing much argument or disagreement引起争论的

      crack downtake disciplinary action against 对……采取严厉措施,对……进行制裁

      defective n. a. faulty; imperfect 有缺陷的

      deficiency n. state of having none or not enough缺乏,不足

      deteriorate v. become worse in quality 变质,恶化

      discharge v. send, pour or let out (gas, liquid, etc.) 排出;n. the action of discharging; sth. discharged 排出;排出物

      disturbing n. causing anxiety 扰乱,打扰

      disused a. no longer used 不用的,废弃的

      exclusive a. published by only one newspaper at first; not shared with others 独家报到的;独占的,专有的

      inadequate a. not good enough in quality, ability, size, etc. 不适当的,不充足的

      initiative n. the first movement or act which starts sth. happening 首创,发端

      inspectorate n. a group of inspectors 视察团

      inspection n. official visit to judge the quality of sth. or to see that rules are obeyed 视察

      maintenance n. keeping sth. in good condition, by making repairs to it and taking care of it 保养,维修

      mitigate v. make less severe 使缓和

      munitions n. large arms for war, such as bombs, guns, etc. 军火

      obsolete a. no longer used; out of date 已废弃的;过时的

      probe n. careful and thorough inquiry or examination 探究radiation n. sending out light, heat, etc. 放射,辐射

      renew v. give new life and freshness to; repeat 使更新;重复

      restore v. give back or bring back; make well or normal again 使恢复,使回复

      robust a. vigorous 强健的

      scrutiny n. careful and thorough examination; close study or look. 仔细检查,详尽研究

      Silo n. a tall cylindric tower or pit 筒仓

      sprawl v. spread; stretch out 伸展开;蔓延

      urgent a. very important, esp. which must be done or dealt with quickly or first 紧要的

      ventilation n. the passing into and around a room, building, etc. of fresh air (空气等的)流通

      caesium n. 铯

      complex n. 综合企业

      oxy-acetylene 氧乙炔的

      radioactive a. 放射性的

      strontium n. 锶